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Every time a physician makes a diagnosis, they must cope with a series of cognitive limitations and biases that can complicate their efforts. In fact, the top cognitive cause for missing a diagnosis is simply, “I just didn’t consider it.”


Clinical Reasoning

The Clinical Reasoning Toolkit is full of resources to support clinicians in developing their Clinical Reasoning Skills. It also includes specific information for those teaching the next generation of physicians and other members of the clinical team.



There are a wealth of checklists—which are used today throughout medicine and many other industries—that are specifically geared to helping ensure an error-free cognitive process for diagnosis. Many physicians already use checklists for surgeries, central line insertions, and other processes, leading to improvements in the quality of safety of medical care. Diagnostic checklists can help, too.

Process Checklists address common cognitive shortcomings that contribute to diagnostic error.

Content Checklists explore the most common diagnoses for any given symptom.

The checklists are provided for educational purposes only and should not be construed as medical advice. Publication does not indicate SIDM endorsement.


Medical Education

SIDM offers resources to support trainees, practitioners, and educators in examining clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and systems factors that underlie diagnostic error.



Resources for those interested in getting involved in research examining diagnostic accuracy, timeliness, communication and the diagnostic process.


Other External Resources

  • IM Reasoning Podcasts - Dr. Art Nahill and Dr. Nic Szecket present case discussions, conversations and interviews that explore issues important to medical students, trainees and practitioners of clinical medicine, with a special focus on clinical reasoning, the once-mysterious process behind the remarkable abilities of the master clinician.
  • Lisa Sanders' Diagnosis Column in the New York Times
  • Missed It - Michael Green, MD's comic in the Annals of Internal Medicine


Questions, Comments, or Suggestions? Contact us at


Society to Improve
Diagnosis in Medicine
1501 Hinman Ave, #7B
Evanston, Il 60201