Research in the field of clinical reasoning began in the 1970’s with the goal of helping trainees acquire this critical skill. Clinicians and psychologists have used research findings to guide day-to-day instruction and to develop curricula. It is very helpful for teachers to understand the "basic science” in the three previous sections when teaching clinical reasoning.
Quick Take: Read Judith Bowen’s article "Educational Strategies to Promote Clinical Diagnostic Reasoning”
Core resources (additional high-yield introductory information) are indicated by a STAR icon
Ready-to-use Resources: See Elizabeth Stuart’s exercises for teaching novice and struggling learners AND complete curricula (guides, handouts, and slides) under "Cognitive Errors Curricula”
Developing/Remedying Basic Differential Diagnosis Skills View
Cognitive Errors Curricula View
Teaching Clinical Reasoning View
Teaching about Diagnostic Errors View
Learning From Feedback View
Schiff GD. Minimizing diagnostic error: the importance of follow-up and feedback. American Journal of Medicine. 2008.
A detailed discussion of the importance of feedback in calibrating diagnostic performance, the barriers to accessing this feedback and the complexity inherent in the process.
Croskerry P. The feedback sanction. Academic Emergency Medicine. 2000.
A review that argues that clinicians must receive feedback on their diagnostic performance, which occurs infrequently in the current medical environment.
Teaching through Cases View
Learn More about Diagnostic Errors View